Statistical Power of Two-Sample Central Tendency Tests with Unequal Sample Size
Two-sample hypothesis tests are used to compare the means, medians, or other percentiles of two populations to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups. For a given total sample size, statistical power is maximized if the sample sizes for each group are equal. With highly unequal group sizes, each additional observation adds little additional resolution. This simulation study focuses on determining the effect of unequal sample sizes on the statistical power of two-sample hypothesis tests, assuming independent samples with equal variance.